FAQs


ACTN4 IHC & FISH

Q: What is ACTN4?
A: ACTN4 is the acryonym for cytoskeletal protein alpha actinin-4. In human genome, it is encoded by gene ACTN4. Various clinical studies have reported its association with cancer cell’s invasive ability and mobility.
Q: What types of cancers are detected with ACTN4 upregulation?
A: Cancers such as lung cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer and prostate cancer…etc. have been observed with ACTN4 upregulation.
Q: What is the difference between ACTN4 IHC and FISH analysis?
A: IHC analysis detects protein expression level of ACTN4 while FISH analysis detects the copy numbers and chromosomal localization of the gene ACTN4.
Q: What type of sample is required for IHC and FISH analysis?
A: Samples are required to be formalin fixed paraffin embedded prior to performing IHC and FISH analysis.
Q: Approximately how much time is needed to perform IHC and FISH analysis?
A: IHC analysis can usually be completed in a day while FISH analysis may take longer, usually requires two days for readout.

CytoQuest™ CR

Q: What is CytoQuest™ CR ?
A: CytoQuest™ CR is a non-invasive system for capture, enumeration, isolation and retrieval of circulating rare cells (CRCs). CytoQuest™ CR technology utilizes SCx™ spiral chamber, HBx™ micromixer, antibody immobilized nanoarray, and TCx™ thermal control to enable a multitude of CRC functions. Monoclonal antibodies targeting specific surface biomarkers of circulating rare cells can be flexibly interchanged to accommodate the biomarker switch in CRC progression. This results in highly pure and viable CRCs for downstream protein characterizations, gene analyses, and cell assays.
Q: What is the recovery rate of CytoQuest™ CR ?
A: Our recovery rate is approximately 90% (+/- 5%).
Q: What is the recommended time between blood collection and CTC isolation?
A: The blood sample should be processed within 6 hours.
Q: What are the limitations and the sensitivities of CytoQuest™ CR?
A: CytoQuest™ CR enhances the detection of low abundance circulation rare cells (CRCs) to the limit of detecting 1 in every 107 cells.
Q: How much blood sample do I need to effectively isolate CRCs?
A: We can effectively isolate CRCs with blood sample as little as 2.5mL.
Q: How is CytoQuest™ CR different from flow cytometry?
A: Flow cytometry is a laser dependent technology that detects and sorts cells by its fluorescent signal when passing through the detector. CytoQuest™ CR on the other hand, does not require pre-staining of cells with antibodies or fluorescent dyes. Cells are captured by CytoQuest™ CR by antibodies recognizing specific biomarkers expressed on the cell surface. Besides, cell damage due to shear force in the microfluidic system of CytoQuest™ CR is less comparing to the flow cytometry, and this benefits cell viability.

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